Gillian McGillivray

Position / Job title: Associate Professor

Department: York University,

Institution: York University, Toronto

Please see, which describes a (slightly older) research project focused on two questions:

"(1) Why did sugar workers and cane farmers in early-twentieth-century Brazil keep making sugar when their counterparts in Mexico and Cuba formed the backbone of revolutionary insurgencies?

(2) How did Brazilian sugar mill owners manage to keep rural workers and farmers out of President Getúlio Vargas’s populist reforms that benefitted urban workers in mid-twentieth century Brazil?"